THE CONSTITUTION (THIRTY-NINTH AMENDMENT) ACT, 1975

Statement of Objects and Reasons appended to the Constitution
        (Fortieth Amendment) Bill, 1975 which was enacted as
         the Constitution (Thirty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1975

                   STATEMENT OF OBJECTS AND REASONS

Article  71 of the Constitution provides that disputes arising out  of
the  election  of the President or Vice-President shall be decided  by
the Supreme Court.  The same article provides that matters relating to
their  election shall be regulated by a parliamentary law.  So far  as
the  Prime Minister and the Speaker are concerned, matters relating to
their  election are regulated by the provisions of the  Representation
of  the  People  Act,  1951.   Under  this  Act   the  High  Court  has
jurisdiction  to try an election petition presented against either  of
them.

2.   The  President,  the Vice-President, the Prime Minister  and  the
Speaker  are holders of high offices.  The President is not answerable
to  a court of law for anything done, while in office, in the exercise
of his powers.  A fortiori matters relating to his election should not
be  brought  before a court of law but should be entrusted to a  forum
other  than  a  court.   The same reasoning  applies   equally  to  the
incumbents  of  the  offices  of Vice-President,  Prime   Minister  and
Speaker.  It is accordingly proposed to provide that disputes relating
to  the  election  of  the   President  and   Vice-President  shall  be
determined  by  a forum as may be determined by a  parliamentary  law.
Similar  provision is proposed to be made in the case of the  election
to  either House of Parliament or, as the case may be, to the House of
the  People  of a person holding the office of Prime Minister  or  the
Speaker.   It  is  further proposed to render pending   proceedings  in
respect  of  such election under the existing law null and void.   The
Bill also provides that the parliamentary law creating a new forum for
trial  of  election  matters relating to the incumbents  of  the   high
offices abovementioned shall not be called in question in any court.

3.  Recourse was had in the past to the Ninth Schedule whenever it was
found  that progressive legislation conceived in the interests of  the
public  was imperilled by litigation.  It has become necessary to have
recourse  to  this  device  once again now.   Between   1971  and  1973
legislation  was enacted for nationalising coking coal and coal  mines
for  conservating these resources in the interests of steel  industry.
These  enactments  have been brought before courts on the ground  that
they   are  unconstitutional.   So  is   the   case  of  sick   textile
undertakings which were nationalised in 1974.  To prevent smuggling of
goods  and  diversion  of  foreign exchange  which  affected   national
economy Parliament enacted legislation which again has been challenged
in  the  Supreme Court and in High Courts.  These and other  important
and  special  enactments which it is considered necessary should  have
the  constitutional  protection under article 31B, are proposed to  be
included  in the Ninth Schedule.  Certain State legislations  relating
to  land reform and ceiling on agricultural land holdings have already
been included in the Ninth Schedule.  Certain amendments made to these
legislations also require protection of the provisions of article 31B.

4. The Bill seeks to give effect to the above objects.

NEW DELHI;                                       H.   R.  GOKHALE.

The 6th August, 1975.


THE CONSTITUTION (THIRTY-NINTH AMENDMENT) ACT, 1975

                                        [10th August, 1975.]

An Act further to amend the Constitution of India.

BE it enacted by Parliament in the Twenty-sixth Year of the Republic of
India as follows:-

1.   Short title.-This Act may be called the Constitution Thirty-ninth
Amendment) Act, 1975.

2.   Substitution of new article for article 71.-For article 71 of the
Constitution, the following article shall be substituted, namely:-

"71.   Matters  relating  to   or  connected with  the  election  of  a
President  or  Vice-President.-(1) Subject of the provisions  of  this
Constitution, Parliament may by law regulate any matter relating to or
connected  with  the  election  of   a  President   or  Vice-President,
including the grounds on which such election may be questioned:

Provided  that the election of a person as President or Vice-President
shall  not be called in question on the ground of the existence of any
vacancy for whatever reason among the members of the electoral college
electing  him.

(2)  All doubts and disputes arising out of or in connection with  the
election  of a President or Vice-President shall be inquired into  and
decided  by  such  authority  or body and in such  manner   as  may  be
provided for by or under any law referred to in clause (1).

(3)  The validity of any such law as is referred to in clause (1)  and
the  decision  of  any authority or body under such law shall  not   be
called in question in any court.

(4)  If  the  election of a person as President or  Vice-President  is
declared void under any such law as is referred to in clause (1), acts
done  by him in the exercise and performance of the powers and  duties
of  the office of President or Vice-President, as the case may be,  on
or  before  the date of such declaration shall not be  invalidated  by
reason of that declaration.".

3.  Amendment of article 329.-In article 329 of the Constitution, for
the words "Notwithstanding any thing in this Constitution", the words,
figures  and letter "Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution but
subject to the provisions of article 329A" shall be substituted.

4.   Insertion  of new article 329A.-In Part XV of the  Constitution,
after article 329, the following article shall be inserted, namely:-

"329A.  Special provision as to elections to Parliament in the case of
Prime  Minister and Speaker.-(1) Subject to the provisions of  Chapter
II  of Part V [except sub-clause (e) of clause (1) of article 102], no
election-

(a)  to either House of Parliament of a person who holds the office of
Prime  Minister at the time of such election or is appointed as  Prime
Minister after such election;

(b)  to  the House of the People of a person who holds the  office  of
Speaker  of that House at the time of such election or who is chosen
as the Speaker for that House after such election,

shall  be called in question, except before such authority [not  being
any  such authority as is referred to in clause (b) of article 329] or
body  and  in such manner as may be provided for by or under  any  law
made  by Parliament and any such law may provide for all other matters
relating to doubts and disputes in relation to such election including
the grounds on which such election may be questioned.

(2)  The validity of any such law as is referred to in clause (1)  and
the  decision  of  any authority or body under such law shall  not   be
called in question in any court.

(3)  Where  any person is appointed as Prime Minister or, as the  case
may  be,  chosen  to  the office of the Speaker of the  House   of  the
People,  while  an  election  petition referred to in  clause   (b)  of
article  329 in respect of his election to either House of  Parliament
or,  as  the case may be, to the House of the People is pending,  such
election  petition  shall  abate upon such person being  appointed   as
Prime  Minister or, as the case may be, being chosen to the office  of
the  Speaker  of  the House of the People, but such  election   may  be
called in question under any such law as is referred to in clause (1).

(4)  No  law  made  by   Parliament  before  the  commencement  of  the
Constitution  (Thirty-ninth  Amendment)  Act, 1975, in so  far   as  it
relates  to election petitions and matters connected therewith,  shall
apply or shall be deemed ever to have applied to or in relation to the
election  to any such person as is referred to in clause (1) to either
House  of Parliament and such election shall not be deemed to be  void
or  ever to have become void on any ground on which such elction could
be declared to be void or has, before such commencement, been declared
to  be  void under any such law and notwithstanding any order made  by
any  court,  before  such commencement, declaring such elction  to   be
void, such election shall continue to be valid in all respects and any
such  order and any finding on which such order is based shall be  and
shall be deemed always to have been void and of no effect.

(5)  Any appeal or cross appeal against any such order of any court as
is   referred  to  in  clause   (4)  pending   immediately  before  the
commencement  of the Constitution (Thirty-ninth Amendment) Act,  1975,
before  the Supreme Court shall be disposed of in conformity with  the
provisions of clause (4).

(6)  The provisions of this article shall have effect   notwithstanding
anything contained in this Constitution.".

5.   Amendment  of  the Ninth Schedule.-In the Ninth Schedule  to  the
Constitution, after entry 86 and before the Explanation, the following
entries shall be inserted, namely:-

"87.   The  Representation of the People Act, 1951 (Central Act 43  of
1951), the Representation of the People (Amendment) Act, 1974 (Central
Act  58 of 1974) and the Election Laws (Amendment) Act, 1975  (Central
Act 40 of 1975).

88.   The  Industries (Development and Regulation) Act, 1951  (Central
Act 65 of 1951).

89.   The  Requisitioning and Acquisition of Immovable  Property  Act,
1952 (Central Act 30 of 1952).

90.   The  Mines and Minerals (Regulation and Development)  Act,  1957
(Central Act 67 of 1957).

91.  The Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Act, 1969 (Central
Act 54 of 1969).

92.  The Maintenance of Internal Security Act, 1971 (Central Act 26 of
1971).

93.   The Coking Coal Mines (Emergency Provisions) Act, 1971  (Central
Act 64 of 1971).

94.  The Coking Coal Mines (Nationalisation) Act, 1972 (Central Act
36 of 1972).

95.   The  General  Insurance   Business  (Nationalisation)  Act,  1972
(Central Act 57 of 1972).

96.   The Indian Copper Corporation (Acquisition of Undertaking) Act,
1972 (Central Act 58 of 1972).

97.   The  Sick Textile Undertakings (Taking Over of  Management)
Act, 1972 (Central Act 72 of 1972).

98.  The Coal Mines (Taking Over of Management) Act, 1973 (Central Act
15 of 1973).

99.   The Coal Mines (Nationalisation) Act, 1973 (Central  Act
26 of 1973).

100.   The  Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1973 (Central Act  46  of
1973).

101.   The  Alcock  Ashdown Company Limited  (Acquisition  of  Under-
takings) Act, 1973 (Central Act 56 of 1973).

102.  The Coal Mines (Conservation and Development) Act, 1974 (Central
Act 28 of 1974).

103.   The  Additional  Emoluments    (Compulsory  Deposit)  Act,  1974
(Central Act 37 of 1974).

104.  The Conservation of Foreign Exchange and Prevention of Smuggling
Activities Act, 1974 (Central Act 52 of 1974).

105.   The  Sick  Textile   Undertakings  (Nationalisation)  Act,  1974
(Central Act 57 of 1974).

106.   The  Maharashtra  Agricultural    Lands  (Ceiling  on  Holdings)
(Amendment) Act, 1964 (Maharashtra Act XVI of 1965).

107.   The  Maharashtra  Agricultural    Lands  (Ceiling  on  Holdings)
(Amendment) Act, 1965 (Maharashtra Act XXXII of 1965.

108.   The  Maharashtra  Agricultural    Lands  (Ceiling  on  Holdings)
(Amendment) Act, 1968 (Maharashtra Act XVI of 1968).

109.  The Maharashtra Agricultural Lands (Ceiling on Holdings) (Second
Amendment) Act, 1968 (Maharashtra Act XXXIII of 1968).

110.   The  Maharashtra  Agricultural    Lands  (Ceiling  on  Holdings)
(Amendment) Act, 1969 (Maharashtra Act XXXVII of 1969).

111.  The Maharashtra Agricultural Lands (Ceiling on Holdings) (Second
Amendment) Act, 1969 (Maharashtra Act XXXVIII of 1969).

112.   The  Maharashtra  Agricultural    Lands  (Ceiling  on  Holdings)
(Amendment) Act, 1970 (Maharashtra Act XXVII of 1970).

113.   The  Maharashtra  Agricultural    Lands  (Ceiling  on  Holdings)
(Amendment) Act, 1972 (Maharashtra Act XIII of 1972).

114.   The  Maharashtra  Agricultural    Lands  (Ceiling  on  Holdings)
(Amendment) Act, 1973 (Maharashtra Act L of 1973).

115.   The Orissa Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1965 (Orissa Act 13 of
1965).

116.   The Orissa Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1966 (Orissa Act 8  of
1967).

117.   The Orissa Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1967 (Orissa Act 13 of
1967).

118.   The Orissa Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1969 (Orissa Act 13 of
1969).

119.   The Orissa Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1970 (Orissa Act 18
of 1970).

120.   The  Uttar  Pradesh   Imposition of  Ceiling  on  Land  Holdings
(Amendment) Act, 1972 (Uttar Pradesh Act 18 of 1973).

121.   The  Uttar  Pradesh   Imposition of  Ceiling  on  Land  Holdings
(Amendment) Act, 1974 (Uttar Pradesh Act 2 of 1975).

122.  The Tripura Land Revenue and Land Reforms (Third Amendment Act,
1975 (Tripura Act 3 of 1975).

123.   The Dadra and Nagar Haveli Land Reforms Regulation, 1971 (3  of
1971).

124.   The Dadra and Nagar Haveli Land Reforms (Amendment) Regulation,
1973 (5 of 1973).".