THE CONSTITUTION (FORTY-SECOND AMENDMENT) ACT, 1976

Statement of Objects and Reasons appended  to  the  Constitution
(Forty-fourth  Amendment) Bill, 1976 (Bill No.  91 of 1976) which  was
    enacted as THE CONSTITUTION (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976

                   STATEMENT OF OBJECTS AND REASONS

A  Constitution  to be living must be growing.   If the impediments  to
the  growth of the Constitution are not removed, the Constitution will
suffer  a virtual atrophy.  The question of amending the  Constitution
for  removing  the  difficulties which have arisen  in  achieving   the
objective  of  socio-economic revolution, which would end poverty  and
ignorance and disease and inequality of opportunity, has been engaging
the active attention of Government and the public for some years now.

2.   The  democratic  institutions provided in  the  Constitution  are
basically  sound and the path for progress does not lie in denigrating
any  of  these institutions.  However, there could be no  denial   that
these  institutions  have been subjected to considerable stresses  and
strains  and  that vested interests have been trying to promote  their
selfish ends to the great detriment of public good.

3.   It is, therefore, proposed to amend the Constitution to spell out
expressly  the high ideals of socialism, secularism and the  integrity
of the nation, to make the directive principles more comprehensive and
give  them  precedence over those fundamental rights which  have  been
allowed  to  be  relied upon to frustrate socio-economic  reforms   for
implementing the directive principles.  It is also proposed to specify
the fundamental duties of the citizens and make special provisions for
dealing  with  anti-national  activities, whether  by   individuals  or
associations.

4.   Parliament  and  the State Legislatures embody the  will  of  the
people  and  the essence of democracy is that the will of  the  people
should  prevail.  Even though article 368 of the Constitution is clear
and  categoric with regard to the all inclusive nature of the amending
power,  it is considered necessary to put the matter beyond doubt.  It
is   proposed  to  strengthen  the   presumption   in  favour  of   the
constitutionality  of  legislation  enacted by  Parliament  and   State
Legislatures  by providing for a requirements as to the minimum number
of  Judges  for determining questions as to the  constitutionality  of
laws  and  for  a  special majority of not less  than   two-thirds  for
declaring any law to be constitutionally invalid.  It is also proposed
to  take  away  the  jurisdiction  of   High   Courts  with  regard  to
determination  of  Constitutional validity of Central laws and  confer
exclusive  jurisdiction  in this behalf on the Supreme Court so as  to
avoid  multiplicity of proceedings with regard to validity of the same
Central law in different High Courts and the consequent possibility of
the Central law being valid in one State and invalid in another State.

5.   To  reduce the mounting arrears in High Courts and to secure  the
speedy  disposal of service matters, revenue matters and certain other
matters  of  special importance in the context of  the  socio-economic
development  and  progress, it is considered expedient to provide  for
administrative and other tribunals for dealing with such matters while
preserving  the  jurisdiction of the Supreme Court in regard  to  such
matters  under article 136 of the Constitution.  It is also  necessary
to  make  certain modifications in the writ jurisdiction of  the  High
Courts under article 226.

6.  It is proposed to avail of the present opportunity to make certain
other  amendments  which  have become necessary in the  light  of   the
working of the Constitution.

7.  The various amendments proposed in the Bill have been explained in
the notes on clauses.

8.  The Bill seeks to achieve the above objects.

NEW DELHI;                                           H. R. GOKHALE.

The 28th August, 1976.


THE CONSTITUTION (FORTY-SECOND AMENDMENT) ACT, 1976

                                ------
                       ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS

                               --------

SECTIONS

1.      Short title and commencement.

2.      Amendment of the Preamble.

3.      Insertion of new sub-heading after article 31.

4.      Amendment of article 31C.

5.      Insertion of new article 31D.

6.      Insertion of new article 32A.

7.      Amendment of article 39.

8.      Insertion of new article 39A.

9.      Insertion of new article 43A.

10.     Insertion of new article 48A.

11.     Insertion of new Part IVA.

12.     Amendment of article 55.

13.     Amendment of article 74.

14.     Amendment of article 77.

15.     Amendment of article 81.

16.     Amendment of article 82.

17.     Amendment of article 83.

18.     Amendment of article 100.

19.     Amendment of article 102.

20.     Substitution of new article for article 103.

21.     Amendment of article 105.

22.     Amendment of article 118.

23.     Insertion of new article 131A.

24.     Insertion of new article 139A.

25.     Insertion of new article 144A.

26.     Amendment of article 145.

27.     Substitution of new article for article 150.

28.     Amendment of article 166.

29.     Amendment of article 170.

30.     Amendment of article 172.

31.     Amendment of article 189.

32.     Amendment of article 191.

33.     Substitution of new article for article 192.

34.     Amendment of article 194.

35.     Amendment of article 208.

36.     Amendment of article 217.

37.     Amendment of article 225.

38.     Substitution of new article for article 226.

39.     Insertion of new article 226A.

40.     Amendment of article 227.

41.     Amendment of article 228.

42.     Insertion of new article 228A.

43.     Insertion of new article 257A.

44.     Amendment of article 311.

45.     Amendment of article 312.

46.     Insertion of new Part XIVA.

47.     Amendment of article 330.

48.     Amendment of article 352.

49.     Amendment of article 353.

50.     Amendment of article 356.

51.     Amendment of article 357.

52.     Amendment of article 358.

53.     Amendment of article 359.

54.     Amendment of article 366.

55.     Amendment of article 368.

56.     Amendment of article 371F.

57.     Amendment of the Seventh Schedule.

58.     Special provisons as to pending petitions under article 226.

59.     Power of the President to remove difficulties.

~
THE CONSTITUTION (FORTY-SECOND AMENDMENT) ACT, 1976

                                        [18th December, 1976.]

An Act further to amend the Constitution of India.

BE it enacted by Parliament in the Twenty-seventh Year of the Republic
of India as follows:-

1.   Short  title  and commencement.- (1) This Act may be  called  the
Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976.

(2)  It  shall come into force on such date as the Central  Government
may,  by  notification in the Official Gazette, appoint and  different
dates may be appointed for different provisions of this Act.

2.  Amendment of the Preamble.- In the Preamble to the Constitution,-

(a) for the words "SOVEREIGN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC" the words "SOVEREIGN
SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC" shall be substituted;  and

(b)  for  the  words  "unity   of the Nation",  the  words  "unity  and
integrity of the Nation" shall be substituted.

3.  Insertion of new sub-heading after article 31.-After article 31 of
the  Constitution,  the  following   sub-heading  shall   be  inserted,
namely:---

"Saving of Certain Laws"

4.   Amendment of article 31C.-In article 31C of the Constitution, for
the  words, brackets, letters and figures "the principles specified in
clause (b) or clause (c) of article 39", the words and figures "all or
any of the principles laid down in Part IV" shall be substituted.

5.    Insertion  of  new   article   31D.-After  article  31C  of   the
Constitution  and  before  the sub-heading  "Right  to   Constitutional
Remedies", the following article shall be inserted, namely:---

`31D.   Saving  of laws in respect of anti-national  activities.-  (1)
Notwithstanding  anything  contained in article 13, no  law  providing
for-

(a) the prevention or prohibition of anti-national activities;  or

(b)   the  prevention  of   formation   of,  or  the  prohibition   of,
anti-national associations,

shall be deemed to be void on the ground that it is inconsistent with,
or  takes away or abridges any of the rights conferred by, article
14, article 19 or article 31.

(2)  Notwithstanding  anything in this Constitution, Parliament  shall
have,  and  the Legislature of a State shall not have, power  to  make
laws  with respect to any of the matters referred to in sub-clause (a)
or sub-clause (b) of clause (1).

(3)  Any law with respect to any matter referred to in sub-clause  (a)
or  sub-clause (b) of clause (1) which is in force immediately  before
the  commencement  of  section  5 of  the  Constitution   (Forty-second
Amendment)  Act,  1976,  shall  continue in  force  until   altered  or
repealed or amended by Parliament.

(4) In this article,-

(a) "association" means an association of persons;

(b)  "anti-national  activity",   in  relation   to  an  individual  or
association,   means   any  action  taken   by   such   individual   or
association-

(i) which is intended, or which supports any claim, to bring about, on
any ground whatsoever, the cession of a part of the territory of India
or the secession of a part of the territory of India or which incities
any  individual  or  association  to   bring  about   such  cession  or
secession;

(ii) which disclaims, questions, threatens, disrupts or is intended to
threaten  or  disrupt  the sovereignty and integrity of India  or   the
security of the State or the unity of the nation;

(iii)  which  is  intended,  or which is part of  a  scheme  which  is
intended, to overthrow by force the Government as by law established;

(iv)  which  is  intended,  or   which is part of  a  scheme  which  is
intended,  to create internal disturbance or the disruption of  public
services;

(v) which is intended, or which is part of a scheme which is intended,
to  threaten  or disrupt harmony between different religious,  racial,
language or regional groups or castes or communities;

(c) "anti-national association" means an association---

(i) which has for its object any anti-national activity;

(ii)  which  encourages or aids persons to undertake or engage in  any
anti-national activity;

(iii)  the  members whereof undertake or engage in any  anti-national
activity.'.

6.   Insertion  of  new  article   32A.-After  article  32  of
the Constitution, the following article shall be inserted, namely:-

"32A.   Constitutional validity of State laws not to be considered  in
proceedings  under article 32.-Notwithstanding anything in article 32,
the  Supreme  Court shall not consider the constitutional validity  of
any  State  law  in  any proceedings under  that  article   unless  the
constitutional  validity  of any Central law is also in issue in  such
proceedings.".

7.   Amendment  of article 39.-In article 39 of the Constitution,  for
clause (f), the following clause shall be substituted, namely:-

"(f)  that children are given opportunities and facilities to  develop
in  a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that
childhood  and  youth are protected against exploitation  and  against
moral and material abandonment.".

8.    Insertion   of  new   article   39A.-After  article  39  of   the
Constitution, the following article shall be inserted, namely:---

"39A.   Equal justice and free legal aid.-The State shall secure  that
the  operation  of  the legal system promotes justice, on a  basis   of
equal  opportunity, and shall, in particular, provide free legal  aid,
by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way, to ensure that
opportunities  for  securing justice are not denied to any citizen  by
reason of economic or other disabilities.".

9.    Insertion   of  new   article   43A.-After  article  43  of   the
Constitution, the following article shall be inserted, namely:---

"43A.  Participation of workers in management of industries.-The State
shall  take  steps,  by suitable legislation or in any other  way,   to
secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings,
establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry.".

10.    Insertion  of  new   article   48A.-After  article  48  of   the
Constitution, the following article shall be inserted, namely:---

"48A.   Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding  of
forests  and  wild  life.-The  State shall endeavour  to   protect  and
improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of
the country.".

Insertion of new Part IVA.

11.  Insertion of new Part IVA.-After Part IV of the Constitution, the
following Part shall be inserted, namely:-

"PART IVA

FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES

51A.   Fundamental  duties.-It shall be the duty of every  citizen  of
India---

(a)  to  abide  by  the   Constitution   and  respect  its  ideals  and
institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem;

(b) to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national
struggle for freedom;

(c)  to  uphold  and protect the sovereignty, unity and  integrity  of
India;

(d) to defend the country and render national service when called upon
to do so;

(e) to promote harmony and the sprit of common brotherhood amongst all
the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or
sectional  diversities;   to  renounce  practices   derogatory  to  the
dignity of women;

(f) to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;

(g) to protect and improve the natural environment including forests,
lakes,  rivers  and  wild  life, and to  have  compassion   for  living
creatures;

(h)  to  develop  the  scientific temper, humanism and  the  sprit  of
inquiry and reform;

(i) to safeguard public property and to abjure violence;

(j)  to  strive  towards excellence in all spheres of  individual  and
collective  activity  so  that the nation constantly rises  to   higher
levels of endeavour and achievement.".

12.   Amendment of article 55.-In article 55 of the Constitution,  for
the  Explanation,  the  following Explanation  shall  be   substituted,
namely:-

`Explanation.-In  this article, the expression "population" means the
population  as  ascertained at the last preceding census of which  the
relevant figures have been published:

Provided  that the reference in this Explanation to the last preceding
census  of which the relevant figures have been published shall, until
the  relevant  figures for the first census taken after the year  2000
have been published, be construed as a reference to the 1971 census.'.

13.   Amendment of article 74.-In article 74 of the Constitution,  for
clause (1), the following clause shall be substituted, namely:-

"(1)  There shall be a Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister at
the head to aid and advise the President who shall, in the exercise of
his functions, act in accordance with such advice.".

14.  Amendment of article 77.-In article 77 of the Constitution, after
clause (3), the following clause shall be inserted, namely:-

"(4)  No  court  or other authority shall be entitled to  require  the
production  of any rules made under clause (3) for the more convenient
transaction of the business of the Government of India.".

15.   Amendment  of article 81.-In article 81 of the Constitution,  to
clause (3), the following proviso shall be added, namely:-

"Provided  that  the  reference in this clause to the  last  preceding
census  of which the relevant figures have been published shall, until
the  relevant  figures for the first census taken after the year  2000
have been published, be construed as a reference to the 1971 census.".

16.  Amendment of article 82.-In article 82 of the Constitution, after
the proviso, the following provisos shall be inserted, namely:---

"Provided  further that such readjustment shall take effect from  such
date  as  the  President  may,  by   order,   specify  and  until  such
readjustment  takes  effect, any election to the House may be held  on
the  basis  of  the territorial constituencies  existing  before   such
readjustment:

Provided  also  that until the relevant figures for the  first  census
taken  after  the  year  2000 have been published,  it   shall  not  be
necessary  to  readjust  the allocation of seats in the House  of   the
People  to the States and the division of each State into  territorial
constituencies under this article.".

17.   Amendment of article 83.-(1) In article 83 of the  Constitution,
in clause (2), for the words "five years" in the two places where they
occur, the words "six years" shall be substituted.

(2) The amendments made by sub-section (1) to clause (2) of article 83
shall  apply also to the House of the People in existence on the  date
of coming into force of this section without prejudice to the power of
Parliament with respect to the extension of the duration of that House
under the proviso to that clause.

18.   Amendment  of article 100.-In article 100 of  the  Constitution,
clauses (3) and (4) shall be omitted.

19.  Amendment of article 102.-In article 102 of the Constitution, for
sub-clause  (a)  of  clause  (1), the following  sub-clause   shall  be
substituted, namely:-

"(a)  if  he holds any such office of profit under the  Government  of
India  or the Government of any State as is declared by Parliament  by
law to disqualify its holder;".

20.   Substitution of new article for article 103.-For article 103  of
the   Constitution,  the  following   article  shall   be  substituted,
namely:-

"103.   Decision  on  questions   as to  disqualification.-(1)  If
any question arises-

(a)  as  to whether a member of either House of Parliament has  become
subject  to  any of the disqualifications mentioned in clause  (1)  of
article 102, or

(b)  as to whether a person, found guilty of a corrupt practice at  an
election  to  a House of Parliament under any law made by  Parliament,
shall  be disqualified for being chosen as, and for being, a member of
either  House  of  Parliament, or of a House of the Legislature  of   a
State,  or as to the period for which he shall be so disqualified,  or
as  to  the  removal  of,  or the reduction of  the   period  of,  such
disqualification,

the  question shall be referred for the decision of the President  and
his decision shall be final.

(2)  Before  giving any decision on any such question,  the  President
shall consult the Election Commission and the Election Commission may,
for this purpose, make such inquiry as it thinks fit.".

21.  Amendment of article 105.-In article 105 of the Constitution, for
clause (3), the following clause shall be substituted, namely:-

"(3)  In other respects, the powers, privileges and immunities of each
House  of  Parliament, and of the members and the committees  of  each
House,  shall  be  those  of  that  House,  and   of  its  members  and
committees,  at  the  commencement of section 21 of  the   Constitution
(Forty-second  Amendment)  Act,  1976, and as may be evolved  by   such
House of Parliament from time to time.".

22.   Amendment of article 118.-In article 118 of the Constitution, in
clause  (1),  after the words "its procedure", the brackets and   words
"(including the quorum to constitute a meeting of the House)" shall be
inserted.

23.   Insertion  of  new  article    131A.-After  article  131  of  the
Constitution, the following article shall be inserted, namely:-

"131A.   Exclusive  jurisdiction   of the Supreme Court  in  regard  to
questions  as  to  Constitutional  validity   of   Central  laws.- (1)
Notwithstanding  anything  contained  in any other provision  of   this
Constitution,  the Supreme Court shall, to the exclusion of any  other
court,  have  jurisdiction to determine all questions relating to  the
constitutional validity of any Central law.

(2) Where a High Court is satisfied-

(a)  that a case pending before it or before a court subordinate to it
involves  questions  as to the constitutional validity of any  Central
law or, as the case may be, of both Central and State laws;  and

(b)  that  the  determination of such questions is necessary  for  the
disposal of the case,

the  High  Court  shall refer the questions for the  decision  of  the
Supreme Court.

(3)  Without  prejudice to the provisions of clause (2), where, on  an
application  made by the Attorney-General of India, the Supreme  Court
is satisfied,-

(a)  that  a  case  pending   before a High Court  or  before  a  court
subordinate   to   a  High  Court   involves   questions  as   to   the
constitutional  validity of any Central law or, as the case may be, of
both Central and State laws;  and

(b)  that  the  determination of such questions is necessary  for  the
disposal of the case,

the Supreme Court may require the High Court to refer the questions to
it for its decision.

(4)  When a reference is made under clause (2) or clause (3), the High
Court  shall  stay  all proceedings in respect of the case  until   the
Supreme Court decides the questions so referred.

(5)  The Supreme Court shall, after giving the parties an  opportunity
of being heard, decide the questions so referred, and may---

(a) either dispose of the case itself;  or

(b)  return  the  case to the High Court together with a copy  of  its
judgment on such questions for disposal of the case in conformity with
such  judgment  by  the High Court or, as the case may be,  the   court
subordinate to it.".

24.   Insertion  of  new  article    139A.-After  article  139  of  the
Constitution, the following article shall be inserted, namely:-

"139A.   Transfer of certain cases.-(1) If, on an application made  by
the  Attorney-General  of India, the Supreme Court is  satisfied  that
cases  involving  the same or substantially the same questions of  law
are  pending  before it and one or more High Courts or before  two  or
more  High Courts and that such questions are substantial questions of
general  importance, the Supreme Court may withdraw the case or  cases
pending  before  the High Court or the High Courts and dispose of  all
the cases itself.

(2)  The Supreme Court may, if it deems it expedient so to do for  the
ends  of  justice,  transfer  any case, appeal  or  other   proceedings
pending before any High Court to any other High Court.".

25.   Insertion  of  new  article   144A.-After  article  144  of
the Constitution, the following article shall be inserted, namely:-

"144A.   Special  provisions as to disposal of questions  relating  to
constitutional  validity of laws.-(1) The minimum number of Judges  of
the  Supreme  Court who shall sit for the purpose of  determining  any
question as to the constitutional validity of any Central law or State
law shall be seven.

(2)  A  Central  law  or  a State law shall  not  be  declared  to  be
constitutionally invalid by the Supreme Court unless a majority of not
less  than  two-thirds  of  the  Judges sitting  for   the  purpose  of
determining the question as to the constitutional validity of such law
hold it to be constitutionally invalid.".

26.  Amendment of article 145.-In article 145 of the Constitution,-

(a)  in  clause  (1), after sub-clause (c), the  following  sub-clause
shall be inserted, namely:-

"(cc) rules as to the proceedings in the Court under articles 131A and
139A;";

(b)  in clause (2), for the words, brackets and figure "provisions  of
clause  (3)"  the words, figures, letter and brackets   "provisions  of
article 144A and of clause (3)" shall be substituted;

(c)  in  clause (3), for the words "The minimum number",   the  words,
figures  and  letter "Subject to the provisions of article  144A,   the
minimum number" shall be substituted.

27.   Substitution of new article for article 150.-For article 150  of
the   Constitution,  the  following   article  shall   be  substituted,
namely:-

"150.   Form of accounts of the Union and of the States.-The  accounts
of  the  Union  and of the States shall be kept in such  form  as   the
President   may,   after  consultation   with  the    Comptroller   and
Autitor-General of India, prescribe.".

28.   Amendment  of article 166.-In article 166 of  the  Constitution,
after clause (3), the following clause shall be inserted, namely:-

"(4)  No  court  or other authority shall be entitled to  require  the
production  of any rules made under clause (3) for the more convenient
transaction of the business of the Government of the State.".

29.  Amendment of article 170.-In article 170 of the Constitution,-

(a)  in  clause  (2), for the Explanation, the  following  Explanation
shall be substituted, namely:-

'Explanation.-In  this  clause, the expression "population" means  the
population  as  ascertained at the last preceding census of which  the
relevant figures have been published:

Provided  that the reference in this Explanation to the last preceding
census  of which the relevant figures have been published shall, until
the  relevant  figures for the first census taken after the year  2000
have been published, be construed as a reference to the 1971 census.'.

(b)  in clause (3), after the proviso, the following provisos shall be
inserted, namely:-

"Provided  further that such readjustment shall take effect from  such
date  as  the  President  may,  by   order,   specify  and  until  such
readjustment  takes  effect, any election to the Legislative  Assembly
may  be  held on the basis of the territorial constituencies  existing
before such readjustment:

Provided  also  that until the relevant figures for the  first  census
taken  after  the  year  2000 have been published,  it   shall  not  be
necessary  to  readjust the total number of seats in  the  Legislative
Assembly of each State and the division of such State into territorial
constituencies under this clause.".

30.  Amendment of article 172.-(1) In article 172 of the Constitution,
in clause (1), for the words "five years" in the two places where they
occur, the words "six years" shall be substituted.

(2)  The  amendments made by sub-section (1) to clause (1) of  article
172  shall  apply  also to every Legislative Assembly  (including   the
Legislative  Assembly of the State of Kerala) in existence on the date
of  coming in to force of this section without prejudice to the  power
of  Parliament  with respect to the extension of the duration of  such
Assembly under the proviso to that clause.

31.   Amendment  of article 189.-In article 189 of  the  Constitution,
clauses (3) and (4) shall be omitted.

32.  Amendment of article 191.-In article 191 of the Constitution, for
sub-clause  (a)  of  clause  (1), the following  sub-clause   shall  be
substituted, namely:-

"(a)  if  he holds any such office of profit under the  Government  of
India  or the Government of any State specified in the First  Schedule
as is declared by Parliament by law to disqualify its holder;".

33.   Substitution of new article for article 192.-For article 192  of
the   Constitution,  the  following   article  shall   be  substituted,
namely:-

192.   Decision  on  questions   as  to  disqualification.-(1)  If  any
question arises-

(a)  as  to whether a member of a House of the Legislature of a  State
has become subject to any of the disqualifications mentioned in clause
(1) of article 191, or

(b)  as to whether a person, found guilty of a corrupt practice at  an
election  to a House of the Legislature of a State under any law  made
by  Parliament,  shall  be disqualified for being chosen as,  and   for
being  a  member  of either House of Parliament or of a House  of   the
Legislature  of a State, or as to the period for which he shall be  so
disqualified,  or as to the removal of, or the reduction of the period
of,  such  disqualification,

the  question shall be referred for the decision of the President  and
his decision shall be final.

(2)  Before  giving any decision on any such question,  the  President
shall consult the Election Commission and the Election Commission may,
for this purpose, make such inquiry as it thinks fit.".

34.  Amendment of article 194.-In article 194 of the Constitution, for
clause (3), the following clause shall be substituted, namely:-

"(3)  In  other respects, the powers, privileges and immunities  of  a
House  of  the  Legislature  of a State, and of the  members   and  the
committees  of  a  House of such Legislature, shall be those  of   that
House,  and  of  its members and Committees, at  the   commencement  of
section 34 of THE CONSTITUTION (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976, and
as  may be evolved by such House of the Legislature of a State, so far
as may be, in accordance with those of the House of the People, and of
its  members  and  committees  where such  House  is   the  Legislative
Assembly and in accordance with those of the Council of States, and of
its  members  and  committees  where such  House  is   the  Legislative
Council.".

35.   Amendment of article 208.-In article 208 of the Constitution, in
clause  (1),  after the words "its procedure", the brackets and   words
"(including the quorum to constitute a meeting of the House)" shall be
inserted.

36.   Amendment of article 217.-In article 217 of the Constitution, in
clause (2),-

(a) in sub-clause (b), the word "or" shall be inserted at the end;

(b)  after sub-clause (b), the following sub-clause shall be inserted,
namely:-

"(c) is, in the opinion of the President, a distinguished jurist.";

(c)  in  the  Explanation,  in clause (a), for  the  words  "has  held
judicial office", the words "has held judicial office or the office of
a  member  of  a  tribunal or any post, under the Union  or   a  State,
requiring special knowledge of law" shall be substituted.

37.  Amendment of article 225.-In article 225 of the Constitution, the
proviso shall be omitted.

38.   Substitution of new article for article 226.-For article 226  of
the Constitution, the following article shall be substituted, namely:-

   "226.   Power  of   High  Courts   to  issue  certain  writs.-  (1)
Notwithstanding  anything in article 32 but subject to the  provisions
of  article 131A and article 226A, every High Court shall have  power,
throughout  the  territories  in  relation   to  which   it   exercises
jurisdiction,  to  issue  to  any person or  authority,   including  in
appropriate   cases,   any  Government,   within    those   territories
directions,  orders or writs, including writs in the nature of  habeas
corpus,  mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari, or any of
them,-

(a)  for  the  enforcement  of   any of the  rights  conferred  by  the
provisions of Part III;  or

(b) for the redress of any injury of a substantial nature by reason of
the  contravention of any other provision of this Constitution or  any
provision   of  any  enactment  or   Ordinance  or   any  order,  rule,
regulation, bye-law or other instrument made thereunder;  or

(c)  for the redress of any injury by reason of any illegality in  any
proceedings by or before any authority under any provision referred to
in  sub-clause  (b) where such illegality has resulted in  substantial
failure of justice.

(2)  The power conferred by clause (1) to issue directions, orders  or
writs  to any Government, authority or person may also be exercised by
any  High Court exercising jurisdiction in relation to the territories
within  which  the cause of action, wholly or in part, arises for  the
exercise  of  such  power,  notwithstanding  that  the   seat  of  such
Government  or authority or the residence of such person is not within
those territories.

(3)  No  petition  for  the   redress of  any  injury  referred  to  in
sub-clause (b) or sub-clause (c) of clause (1) shall be entertained if
any  other  remedy  for such redress is provided for by or  under   any
other law for the time being in force.

(4)  No interim order (whether by way of injunction or stay or in  any
other  manner) shall be made on, or in any proceedings relating to,  a
petition under clause (1) unless-

(a)  copies  of such petition and of all documents in support  of  the
plea  for  such interim order are furnished to the party against  whom
such petition is filed or proposed to be filed;  and

(b) opportunity is given to such party to be heard in the matter.

(5)  The High Court may dispense with the requirements of  sub-clauses
(a)  and (b) of clause (4) and make an interim order as an exceptional
measure if it is satisfied for reasons to be record in writing that it
is  necessary  so  to do for preventing any loss being caused  to   the
petitioner  which  cannot be adequately compensated in money  but  any
such  interim order shall, if it is not vacated earlier, cease to have
effect  on  the expiry of a period of fourteen days from the  date  on
which  it is made unless the said requirements have been complied with
before  the expiry of that period and the High Court has continued the
operation of the interim order.

(6)  Notwithstanding anything in clause (4) or clause (5), no  interim
order  (whether  by way of injunction or stay or in any other  manner)
shall  be made on, or in any proceedings relating to, a petition under
clause  (1)  where  such order will have the effect  of  delaying   any
inquiry  into  a matter of public importance or any  investigation  or
inquiry into an offence punishable with imprisonment or any action for
the  execution  of  any  work or project of  public   utility,  or  the
acquisition  of any property for such execution, by the Government  or
any corporation owned or controlled by the Government.

(7)  The power conferred on a High Court by this article shall not  be
in  derogation  of the power conferred on the Supreme Court by  clause
(2) of article 32.".

39.   Insertion  of  new  article    226A.-After  article  226  of  the
Constitution, the following article shall be inserted, namely:-

"226A.   Constitutional validity of Central laws not to be  considered
in  proceedings under article 226.-Notwithstanding anything in article
226,  the High Court shall not consider the constitutional validity of
any Central law in any proceedings under that article.".

40.    Amendment   of    article  227.-In   article   227   of    the
Constitution,-

(a)  for  clause  (1),  the following   clause  shall  be  substituted,
namely:-

"(1)  Every  High  Court shall have superintendence  over  all  courts
subject to its appellate jurisdiction.";

(b)  after  clause  (4),  the   following  clause  shall  be  inserted,
namely:---

"(5)  Nothing  in this article shall be construed as giving to a  High
Court  any jurisdiction to question any judgment of any inferior court
which is not otherwise subject to appeal or revision.".

41.  Amendment of article 228.-In article 228 of the Constitution, for
the  words "it shall withdraw the case and may---", the words, figures
and  letter "it shall withdraw the case and, subject to the provisions
of article 131A, may---" shall be substituted.

42.   Insertion  of  new  article   228A.- After  article  228  of
the Constitution, the following article shall be inserted, namely:-

"228A.   Special  provisions as to disposal of questions  relating  to
constitutional  validity  of State laws.-(1) No High Court shall  have
jurisdiction  to  declare  any  Central  law  to  be   constitutionally
invalid.

(2)  Subject  to the provisions of article 131A, the  High  Court
may determine all questions relating to the constitutional validity of
any State law.

(3)  The  minimum  number of Judges who shall sit for the  purpose  of
determining  any question as to the constitutional validity of any
State law shall be five:

Provided  that where the High Court consists of less than five Judges,
all the Judges of the High Court may sit and determine such question.

(4)  A State law shall not be declared to be constitutionally  invalid
by the High Court unless-

(a)  where  the High Court consists of five Judges or more,  not  less
than  two-thirds of the Judges sitting for the purpose of  determining
the validity of such law, hold it to be constitutionally invalid;  and

(b)  where  the High Court consists of less than five Judges, all  the
Judges  of  the  High  Court sitting for the purpose  hold   it  to  be
constitutionally invalid.

(5)  The provisions of this article shall have effect   notwithstanding
anything contained in this Part.

Explanation.---In  computing the number of Judges of a High Court  for
the purposes of this article, a Judge who is disqualified by reason of
personal or pecuniary bias shall be excluded.".

43.   Insertion  of  new  article   257A.-  After  article  257  of
the Constitution, the following article shall be inserted, namely:-

"257A.   Assistance  to States by deployment of armed forces or  other
forces  of the Union.-(1) The Government of India may deploy any armed
force  of  the Union or any other force subject to the control of  the
Union  for  dealing with any grave situation of law and order  in  any
State.

(2)  Any  armed force or other fore or any contingent or unit  thereof
deployed  under  clause (1) in any State shall act in accordance  with
such  directions  as the Government of India may issue and shall  not,
save  as  otherwise  provided in such directions, be  subject  to   the
superintendence  or control of the State Government or any officer  or
authority subordinate to the State Government.

(3)  Parliament may, by law, specify the powers, functions, privileges
and  liabilities of the members of any force or any contingent or unit
thereof   deployed  under  clause  (1)   during   the  period  of  such
deployment.".

44.  Amendment of article 311.- In article 311 of the Constitution, in
clause (2),-

(a) the words "and where it is proposed, after such inquiry, to impose
on  him  any  such  penalty,  until he has  been  given   a  reasonable
opportunity of making representation on the penalty proposed, but only
on  the  basis of the evidence adduced during such inquiry"  shall   be
omitted;

(b)  for the words "Provided that this clause shall not apply---", the
following shall be substituted, namely:-

"Provided that where it is proposed after such inquiry, to impose upon
him  any such penalty, such penalty may be imposed on the basis of the
evidence  adduced during such inquiry and it shall not be necessary to
give  such  person  any opportunity of making  representation  on   the
penalty proposed:

Provided further that this clause shall not apply---".

45.  Amendment of article 312.-In article 312 of the Constitution,-

(a) in clause (1),-

(i) for the word and figures "Part XI", the words and figures "Chapter
VI of Part VI or Part XI" shall be substituted;

(ii)  after  the  words "all-India services", the brackets  and  words
"(including an all-India judicial service)" shall be inserted;

(b)  after  clause  (2),  the following  clauses  shall  be  inserted,
namely:-

"(3)  The  all-India judicial service referred to in clause (1)  shall
not  include any post inferior to that of a district judge as  defined
in article 236.

(4)  The  law  providing for the creation of  the  all-India  judicial
service  aforesaid  may contain such provisions for the  amendment  of
Chapter  VI  of Part VI as may be necessary for giving effect  to  the
provisions  of  that  law  and no such law shall be deemed  to   be  an
amendment of this Constitution for the purposes of article 368.".

46.   Insertion of new Part XIVA.-After Part XIV of the  Constitution,
the following Part shall be inserted, namely:-

                              `PART XIVA

                              TRIBUNALS

323A.   Administrative tribunals.- (1) Parliament may, by law, provide
for  the adjudication or trial by administrative tribunals of disputes
and  complaints with respect to recruitment and conditions of  service
of  persons appointed to public services and posts in connection  with
the  affairs  of  the Union or of any State or of any local  or   other
authority  within  the territory of India or under the control of  the
Government  of India or of any corporation owned or controlled by  the
Government.

(2) A law made under clause (1) may-

(a)  provide  for the establishment of an administrative tribunal  for
the Union and a separate administrative tribunal for each State or for
two or more States;

(b)  specify  the jurisdiction, powers (including the power to  punish
for contempt) and authority which may be exercised by each of the said
tribunals;

(c)  provide for the procedure (including provisions as to  limitation
and rules of evidence) to be followed by the said tribunals;

(d) exclude the jurisdiction of all courts, except the jurisdiction of
the  Supreme Court under article 136, with respect to the disputes  or
complaints referred to in clause (1);

(e)  provide for the transfer to each such administrative tribunal  of
any  cases  pending  before any court or other  authority   immediately
before  the  establishment of such tribunal as would have been  within
the  jurisdiction  of such tribunal if the causes of action  on  which
such   suits   or  proceedings  are   based   had  arisen  after   such
establishment;

(f)  repeal or amend any order made by the President under clause  (3)
of article 371D;

(g) contain such supplemental, incidental and consequential provisions
(including provisions as to fees) as Parliament may deem necessary for
the effective functioning of, and for the speedy disposal of cases by,
and the enforcement of the orders of, such tribunals.

(3)  The provisions of this article shall have effect   notwithstanding
anything  in any other provision of this Constitution or in any  other
law for the time being force.

323B.   Tribunals for other matters.- (1) The appropriate  Legislature
may, by law, provide for the adjudication or trial by tribunals of any
disputes,  complaints,  or offences with respect to all or any of  the
matters specified in clause (2) with respect to which such Legislature
has power to make laws.

(2)  The  matters  referred  to   in  clause  (1)  are  the  following,
namely:-

(a) levy, assessment, collection and enforcement of any tax;

(b) foreign exchange, import and export across customs frontiers;

(c) industrial and labour disputes;

(d)  land reforms by way of acquisition by the State of any estate  as
defined  in article 31A or of any rights therein or the extinguishment
or  modification  of  any  such  rights  or  by   way  of  ceiling   on
agricultural land or in any other way;

(e) ceiling on urban property;

(f)  elections  to either House of Parliament or the House  or  either
House  of  the  Legislature  of a State,  but  excluding   the  matters
referred to in article 329 and article 329A;

(g)  production,  procurement, supply and distribution of  foodstuffs,
(including  edible  oilseeds  and oils) and such other  goods  as   the
President  may, by public notification, declare to be essential  goods
for the purpose of this article and control of prices of such goods;

(h) offences against laws with respect to any of the matters specified
in sub-clauses (a) to (g) and fees in respect of any of those matters;

(i)  any  matter  incidental to any of the matters specified  in  sub-
clauses (a) to (h).

(3) A law made under clause (1) may-

(a) provide for the establishment of a hierarchy of tribunals;

(b)  specify  the jurisdiction, powers (including the power to  punish
for contempt) and authority which may be exercised by each of the said
tribunals;

(c)  provide for the procedure (including provisions as to  limitation
and rules of evidence) to be followed by the said tribunals;

(d) exclude the jurisdiction of all courts, except the jurisdiction of
the Supreme Court under article 136, with respect to all or any of the
matters falling within the jurisdiction of the said tribunals;

(e)  provide  for  the  transfer to each such tribunal  of  any  cases
pending before any court or any other authority immediately before the
establishment  of  such  tribunal  as   would  have   been  within  the
jurisdiction  of  such tribunal if the causes of action on which  such
suits or proceedings are based had arisen after such establishment;

(f)   contain   such   supplemental,   incidental   and   consequential
provisions,  (including  provisions  as to fees)  as  the   appropriate
Legislature  may deem necessary for the effective functioning of,  and
for the speedy disposal of cases by, and the enforcement of the orders
of, such tribunals.

(4)  The provisions of this article shall have effect   notwithstanding
anything  in any other provision of this Constitution or in any  other
law for the time being in force.

Explanation.-In  this article, "appropriate Legislature", in  relation
to  any  matter,  means  Parliament or, as the case may  be,   a  State
Legislature  competent  to  make laws with respect to such  matter   in
accordance with the provisions of Part XI.'.

47.  Amendment of article 330.-In article 330 of the Constitution, the
following Explanation shall be inserted at the end, namely:-

`Explanation.-In  this  article  and in article  332,  the  expression
"population" means the population as ascertained at the last preceding
census of which the relevant figures have been published:

Provided  that the reference in this Explanation to the last preceding
census  of which the relevant figures have ben published shall,  until
the  relevant  figures for the first census taken after the year  2000
have  been  published,  be  construed  as a  reference   to  the  1971-
census.'.

48.  Amendment of article 352.-In article 352 of the Constitution,-

(a)  in  clause  (1),  after the words "make  a  declaration  to  that
effect", the following shall be inserted, namely:-

"in  respect  of the whole of India or of such part of  the  territory
thereof as may be specified in the Proclamation";

(b)  in  clause (2), in sub-clause (a), after the word "revoked",  the
words "or varied" shall be inserted;

(c)  after  clause  (2),  the   following  clause  shall  be  inserted,
namely:-

"(2A)  Where  a  Proclamation issued under clause (1) is varied  by  a
subsequent Proclamation, the provisions of clause (2) shall, so far as
may  be,  apply  in relation to such subsequent Proclamation  as   they
apply in relation to a Proclamation issued under clause (1).".

49.   Amendment  of article 353.- To article 353 of the  Constitution,
the following proviso shall be added, namely:-

"Provided that where a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation only
in any part of the territory of India,-

(i)  the executive power of the Union to give directions under  clause
(a), and

(ii) the power of Parliament to make laws under clause (b), shall also
extend  to  any  State other than a State in which or in any  part   of
which  the Proclamation of Emergency is in operation if and in so  far
as  the  security  of India or any part of the  territory   thereof  is
threatened  by  activities  in  or  in relation to  the   part  of  the
territory  of  India  in  which the Proclamation of  Emergency   is  in
operation.".

50.  Amendment of article 356.- In article 356 of the Constitution, in
clause (4), for the words "six months", wherever they occur, the words
"one year" shall be substituted.

51.   Amendment  of  article   357.- (1)   In  article  357  of   the
Constitution,   for  clause  (2),  the   following   clause  shall   be
substituted, namely:-

"(2)  Any law made in exercise of the power of the Legislature of  the
State by Parliament or the President or other authority referred to in
sub-clause (a) of clause (1) which Parliament or the President or such
other  authority would not, but for the issue of a Proclamation  under
article 356, have been competent to make shall, after the Proclamation
has  ceased to operate, continue in force until altered or repealed or
amended by a competent Legislature or other authority.".

(2)  The amendment made by sub-section (1) shall apply also to any law
referred  to in clause (2) of article 357 of the Constitution which is
in force immediately before the coming into force of this section.

52.   Amendment  of article 358.- To article 358 of the  Constitution,
the following proviso shall be added, namely:-

"Provided that where a Proclamation of Emergency is   in operation only
in  any  part of the territory of India, any such law may be made,  or
any such executive action may be taken, under this article in relation
to or in any State or Union territory in which or in any part of which
the Proclamation of Emergency is not in operation, if and in so far as
the  security  of  India  or  any part of  the   territory  thereof  is
threatened  by  activities  in  or  in relation to  the   part  of  the
territory  of  India  in  which the Proclamation of  Emergency   is  in
operation.".

53.  Amendment of article 359.- In article 359 of the Constitution,-

(a) to clause (1A), the following proviso shall be added, namely:-

"Provided  that where a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation only
in  any  part of the territory of India, any such law may be made,  or
any such executive action may be taken, under this article in relation
to or in any State or Union territory in which or in any part of which
the Proclamation of Emergency is not in operation, if and in so far as
the  security  of  India  or  any part of  the   territory  thereof  is
threatened  by  activities  in  or  in relation to  the   part  of  the
territory  of  India  in  which the Proclamation of  Emergency   is  in
operation.";

(b) to clause (2), the following proviso shall be added, namely:-

"Provided  that where a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation only
in  a part of the territory of India, any such order shall not  extend
to  any  other  part of the territory of India unless  the   President,
being  satisfied  that  the  security  of India or  any   part  of  the
territory thereof is threatened by activities in or in relation to the
part  of the territory of India in which the Proclamation of Emergency
is in operation, considers such extension to be necessary.".

54.  Amendment of article 366.- In article 366 of the Constitution,-

(a)  after  clause  (4),  the   following  clause  shall  be  inserted,
namely:-

`(4A)  "Central law" means any law other than a State law but does not
indclude any amendment of this Constitution made under article 368;';

(b)  after  clause  (26),  the following  clause  shall  be  inserted,
namely:-

`(26A) "State law" means-

(a) a State Act or an Act of the Legislature of a Union territory;

(b)  an Ordinance promulgated by the Governor of a State under article
213 or by the administrator of a Union terrirory under article 239B;

(c)  any  provision  with respect to a matter in the State List  in  a
Central Act made before the commencement of this Constitution;

(d)  any  provision with respect to a matter in the State List or  the
Concurrent List in a Provincial Act;

(e)  any  notification, order, scheme, rule, regulation or bye-law  or
any  other  instrument  having the force of law made  under  any   Act,
Ordinance or provisions referred to in sub-clause (a), sub-clause (b),
sub-clause (c) or sub-clause (d);

(f)  any  notification, order, scheme, rule, regulation or bye-law  or
any  other  instrument  having  the force of law,  not   falling  under
sub-clause (e), and made by a State Government or the administrator of
a  Union  territory  or an officer or authority  subordinate  to   such
Government or administrator;  and

(g)  any other law (including any usage or custom having the force  of
law) with respect to a matter in the State List.'.

55.   Amendment  of article 368.- In article 368 of the  Constitution,
after clause (3), the following clauses shall be inserted, namely:-

"(4)  No  amendment of this Constitution (including the provisions  of
Part  III)  made  or purporting to have been made under  this   article
whether  before  or  after  the  commencement of  section   55  of  the
Constitution  (Forty-second  Amendment) Act, 1976] shall be called  in
question in any court on any ground.

(5)  For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that there shall
be  no  limitation whatever on the constituent power of Parliament  to
amend  by way of addition, variation or repeal the provisions of  this
Constitution under this article.".

56.   Amendment of article 371F.- In article 371F of the Constitution,
in clause (c), for the words "five years", the words "six years" shall
be  substituted and for the words "four years" in the two places where
they occur, the words "five years" shall be substituted.

57.   Amendment  of the Seventh Schedule.-In the Seventh Schedule
to the Constitution,-

(a) in List I.-Union List, after entry 2, the following entry shall be
inserted, namely:-

"2A.  Deployment  of any armed force of the Union or any  other  force
subject  to the control of the Union or any contingent or unit thereof
in  any  State  in  aid of the  civil  power;    powers,  jurisdiction,
privileges and liabilities of the members of such forces while on such
deployment.";

(b) in List II.-State List,-

(i)  in  entry  1, for the words "the use of naval,  military  or  air
forces  or any other armed forces of the Union", the words "the use of
any naval, military or air force or any other armed force of the Union
or  of  any other force subject to the control of the Union or of  any
contingent or unit thereof" shall be substituted;

(ii) for entry 2, the following entry shall be substituted, namely:-

"2.   Police  (including  railway and village police) subject  to  the
provisions of entry 2A of List I.";

(iii)  in entry 3, the words "Administration of justice;  constitution
and  organisation of all courts, except the Supreme Court and the High
Court;" shall be omitted;

(iv) entries 11, 19, 20 and 29 shall be omitted;

(v)  in entry 55, the words "and advertisements broadcast by radio  or
television" shall be inserted at the end;

(c) in List III.-Concurrent List,-

(i) after entry 11, the following entry shall be inserted, namely:-

"11A.   Administration  of justice;   constitution and organisation  of
all courts, except the Supreme Court and the High Courts.;

(ii)  after  entry  17,  the following entries  shall  be  inserted,
namely:-

"17A.  Forests.

17B.  Protection of wild animals and birds.";

(iii)  after  entry  20,  the    following  entry  shall  be  inserted,
namely:-

"20A.  Population control and family planning.";

(iv)  for  entry  25,  the    following  entry  shall  be  substituted,
namely:-

"25.   Education, including technical education, medical education and
universities,  subject to the provisions of entries 63, 64, 65 and  66
of List I;  vocational and technical training of labour.";

(v) after entry 33, the following entry shall be inserted, namely:-

"33A.  Weights and measures except establishment of standards.".

58.   Special  provisions as to pending petitions under article  226.-
(1)  Notwithstanding  anything  contained in the  Constitution,   every
petition  made  under  article  226 of  the  Constitution   before  the
appointed  day  and pending before any High Court  immediately  before
that day (such petition being referred to in this section as a pending
petition)  and any interim order (whether by way of injunction or stay
or  in  any other manner) made on, or in any proceedings relating  to,
such  petition before that day shall be dealt with in accordance  with
the provisions of article 226 as substituted by section 38.

(2)  In  particular,  and without prejudice to the generality  of  the
provisions  of  sub-section (1), every pending petition before a  High
Court  which would not have been admitted by the High Court under  the
provisions  of  article  226  as substituted by  section  38   if  such
petition  had  been made after the appointed day, shall abate and  any
interim  order  (whether by way of injunction or stay or in any  other
manner)  made  on,  or in any proceedings relating to,  such   petition
shall stand vacated:

Provided  that nothing contained in this sub-section shall affect  the
right  of  the petitioner to seek relief under any other law  for  the
time  being in force in respect of the matters to which such  petition
relates and in computing the period of limitation, if any, for seeking
such  relief, the period during which the proceedings relating to such
petition were pending in the High Court shall be excluded.

(3)  Every  interim order (whether by way of injunction or stay or  in
any  other manner) which was made before the appointed day, on, or  in
any  proceedings relating to, a pending petition [not being a  pending
petition  which  has  abated under sub-section (2)], and which  is   in
force  on  that day, shall, unless before the appointed day copies  of
such pending petition and of documents in support of the plea for such
interim  order  had  been  furnished to the party  against   whom  such
interim order was made and an opportunity had been given to such party
to  be  heard  in  the matter, cease to have effect  (if   not  vacated
earlier),-

(a)  on the expiry of a period of one month from the appointed day, if
the  copies  of such pending petition and the documents in support  of
the  plea for the interim order are not furnished to such party before
the expiry of the said period of one month;  or

(b)  on the expiry of a period of four months from the appointed  day,
if  the  copies referred to in clause (a) have been furnished to  such
party  within  the period of one month referred to in that clause  but
such party has not been given an opportunity to be heard in the matter
before the expiry of the said period of four months.

(4)  Notwithstanding  anything  contained in  sub-section  (3),  every
interim  order  (whether by way of injunction or stay or in any  other
manner)  which  was  made  before the appointed day,  on,   or  in  any
proceedings  relating  to,  a pending petition [not  being  a   pending
petition  which  has  abated under sub-section (2)], and which  is   in
force on that day, shall, if such order has the effect of delaying any
inquiry  into  a matter of public importance or any  investigation  or
inquiry into an offence punishable with imprisonment or any action for
the  execution  of  any  work or project of  public   utility,  or  the
acquisition  of any property for such execution, by the Government  or
any corporation owned or controlled by the Government, stand vacated.

Explanation.-In  this section, "appointed day" means the date on which
section 38 comes into force.

59.   Power  of  the  President to  remove  difficulties.-(1)  If  any
difficulty   arises  in  giving  effect  to  the   provisions  of   the
Constitution  as  amended  by this Act (including  any   difficulty  in
relation  to the transition from the provisions of the Constitution as
they  stood  immediately before the date of the President's assent  to
this  Act  to  the provisions of the Constitution as amended  by   this
Act), the President may, by order, make such provisions, including any
adaptation  or  modification of any provision of the Constitution,  as
appear to him to be necessary or expedient for the purpose of removing
the difficulty:

Provided  that  no  such order shall be made after the expiry  of  two
years from the date of such assent.

(2)  Every  order made under sub-section (1) shall, as soon as may  be
after it is made, be laid before each House of Parliament.