THE CONSTITUTION (FORTY-THIRD AMENDMENT)

Statement of Objects and Reasons appended  to  the  Constitution
(Forty-fourth  Amendment) Bill, 1977 (Bill No.  148 of 1977) which was
    enacted as THE CONSTITUTION (Forty-third Amendment) Act, 1977

                   STATEMENT OF OBJECTS AND REASONS

The  Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976, inserted various
articles in the Constitution to curtail, both directly and indirectly,
the  jurisdiction  of the Supreme Court and the High Courts to  review
the  constitutionality of laws.  Article 32A barred the Supreme  Court
from  considering  the  constitutional validity of any  State   law  in
proceedings  for  the  enforcement of fundamental  rights  unless   the
constitutional  validity of any Central law was also in issue in  such
proceedings.   Article  131A  gave  to  the  Supreme   Court  exclusive
jurisdiction  to  decide the constitutional validity of a Central  law
and  thus deprived the High Courts of their jurisdiction in respect of
the  same.  Article 144A provided that the minimum number of Judges of
the  Supreme  Court who shall sit for the purpose of  determining  the
constitutional validity of any Central law or State law shall be seven
and  required a special majority of two-thirds for the invalidation of
such  law.   Article  226A barred the High Courts  from   deciding  the
validity  of  any  Central law and article 228A  required  that   there
should  be  a  Bench  of  at least five  Judges  for   determining  the
constitutional  validity  of  any State law and prescribed  a   special
majority for a judgment invalidating such a law.

2.   It is considered that articles 32A, 131A and 228A cause, hardship
to  persons  living in distant parts in India.  Further,  article   32A
would  lead  to multiplicity of proceedings as cases relating  to  the
validity  of  a  State law which could be disposed of by  the   Supreme
Court  itself  have to be heard first by the High Court.  The  minimum
number  of Judges in every case wherein the constitutional validity of
a  law  is  involved, however unsubstantial the  challenge  might   be,
results  in valuable judicial time being lost in hearing and rejecting
submissions  that  have no substance.  The Supreme Court has, in  M/s.
Misrilal  Jain vs.  the State of Orissa and Others (AIR 1977 SC  1686)
expressed the hope that article 144A would engage the prompt attention
of  Parliament and would be amended so as to leave to the court itself
the  duty  to  decide how large a Bench should decide  any   particular
case.   In  fact, a number of cases have been held up in  the   Supreme
Court and High Courts as a result of the aforementioned articles.

3.   It is, therefore, proposed to omit articles 32A, 131A, 144A, 226A
and  228A.   It is also proposed to make special provisions to  enable
the  Supreme  Court and the High Courts to deal with pending cases  in
the  same manner as if the said articles had been omitted with  effect
from  the  1st February, 1977 (viz., the date on which those  articles
were  brought  into  force).  Necessary  consequential   amendments  to
articles 145, 228 and 366 are also proposed to be made.

4.   Article 31D confers special power on Parliament to enact  certain
laws  in  respect of anti-national activities.  It is considered  that
these powers of Parliament to make laws for dealing with anti-national
activities and anti-national associations are of a sweeping nature and
are capable of abuse.  It is, therefore, proposed to omit article 31D.

5. The Bill seeks to achieve the above objects.

NEW DELHI;                                       SHANTI BHUSHAN.

The 12th December, 1977.

THE CONSTITUTION (FORTY-THIRD AMENDMENT)
                        ACT, 1977

                                        [13th April, 1978.]

        An Act further to amend the Constitution of India.

BE it enacted by Parliament in the Twenty-eighth Year of the Republic
of India as follows:-

1.  Short title.-This Act may be called the Constitution (Forty-third
Amendment) Act, 1977.

2.  Omission of article 31D.- Article 31D of the Constitution shall be
omitted.

3.  Omission of article 32A.-(1) Article 32A of the Constitution shall
be omitted.

(2)  Any proceedings pending before the Supreme Court under article 32
of  the  Constitution immediately before the commencement of this  Act
may  be dealt with by the Supreme Court as if the said article 32A had
been omitted with effect on and from the 1st day of February, 1977.

4.   Omission  of article 131A.-(1) Article 131A of  the  Constitution
shall be omitted.

(2)  Notwithstanding  anything  contained in  sub-section  (1),  where
immediately  before the commencement of this Act any reference made by
a High Court under the said article 131A is pending before the Supreme
Court, the Supreme Court may, having regard to-

(a) the stage at which the reference is so pending;   and

(b) the ends of justice,

either  deal with the case as if that article had not been omitted  or
return  the case of the High Court for disposal as if that article had
been omitted with effect on and from the 1st day of February, 1977.

5.   Omission  of article 144A.-(1) Article 144A of  the  Constitution
shall be omitted.

(2)  Any case pending before the Supreme Court immediately before  the
commencement  of this Act may be dealt with by the Supreme Court as if
the said article 144A had been omitted with effect on and from the 1st
day of February, 1977.

6.  Amendment of article 145.-In article 145 of the Constitution,-

(a)  in  clause  (1), in sub-clause (cc), for the words,  figures  and
letters  "articles  131A  and  139A", the  word,   figures  and  letter
"article 139A" shall be substituted;

(b) in clause (2), the words, figures and letter "article 144A and of"
shall be omitted;

(c)  in  clause  (3), the words, figures and letter  "Subject  to  the
provisions of article 144A," shall be omitted.

7.   Amendment of article 226.-In article 226 of the Constitution,  in
clause  (1),  the  words,  figures and letters  "but   subject  to  the
provisions of article 131A and article 226A" shall be omitted.

8.   Omission  of article 226A.-(1) Article 226A of  the  Constitution
shall be omitted.

(2)  Any proceedings pending before a High Court under article 226  of
the  Constitution immediately before the commencement of this Act  may
be  dealt with by the High Court as if the said article 226A had  been
omitted with effect on and from the 1st day of February, 1977.

9.   Amendment of article 228.-In article 228 of the Constitution,  in
the  opening portion, the words, figures and letter ", subject to  the
provisions of article 131A," shall be omitted.

10.   Omission  of article 228A.-(1) Article 228A of the  Constitution
shall be omitted.

(2)  Any  case  pending  before a High Court  immediately  before  the
commencement of this Act may be dealt with by the High Court as if the
said article 228A had been omitted with effect on and from the 1st day
of February, 1977.

11.   Amendment  of article 366.-In article 366 of  the  Constitution,
clause (4A) and clause (26A) shall be omitted.