THE CONSTITUTION (SEVENTY-SIXTH AMENDMENT) ACT, 1994

Statement of Objects and Reasons appended to the Constitution
       (Eighty-fifth Amendment) Bill, 1994 which was enacted as
          THE CONSTITUTION (Seventy-sixth Amendment) Act, 1994

                   STATEMENT OF OBJECTS AND REASONS

The  policy  of reservation of seats in Educational  Institutions  and
reservation  of appointments of posts in public services for Backward
Classes,  Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes has had a long history
in Tamil Nadu dating back to the year 1921.  The extent of reservation
has  been  increased  by  the  State Government  from   time  to  time,
consistent with the needs of the majority of the people and it has now
reached  the level of 69 per cent.  (18 per cent.  Scheduled Castes, 1
per cent.  Scheduled Tribes and 50 per cent.  Other Backward Classes).

2.   The  Supreme Court delivered its judgment in Indira  Sawhney  and
others  Vs.   Union  of  India and Others (AIR 1993 SC  477)   on  16th
November,  1992,  holding  that the total reservations  under   article
16(4) should not exceed 50 per cent.

3.   The  issue  of  admission to   educational  institutions  for  the
academic  year  1993-94 came up before the High Court of Madras  in  a
writ  petition.   The  High Court of Madras held that the  Tamil   Nadu
Government  could continue its reservation policy as hitherto followed
during  that academic year and that the quantum of reservation  should
be  brought  down to 50 per cent.  during the academic  year   1994-95.
The  Government  of  Tamil  Nadu had filed a  Special  Leave   Petition
against the High Court of Madras in order that the present reservation
policy of the State Government should be reaffirmed so as to ensure to
continue  advancement  of the Backward Classes.  However, the  Supreme
Court   of  india  passed  an   interim  order   reiterating  that  the
reservation should not exceed 50 per cent.  in the matter of admission
to educational institutions.

4.   In the special Session of Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly held on
9th  November, 1993, it had been unanimously resolved to call upon the
Central  Government  to  take steps immediately to  bring  a   suitable
amendment  to the Constitution of India as to enable the Government of
Tamil  Nadu  to  continue its policy of 69 per cent.    reservation  in
Government  Services and for admission in Educational Institutions  as
at  present.   An  all  parties meeting had also  been   held  on  26th
November, 1993 in Tamil Nadu urging that there should not be any doubt
or  delay  in  ensuring the continued implementation of 69  per   cent.
reservation for the welfare and advancement of the backward classes.

5.   The Tamil Nadu Government enacted a legislation namely Tamil Nadu
Backward  Classes, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes  (Reservation
of  Seats  in Educational Institution and of appointments or posts  in
the  Services  under  the State) Bill, 1993 and forwarded  it  to   the
Government  of  India for consideration of the President of  India  in
terms of article 31-C of the Constitution.

6.   In view of the importance and sensitive nature of the matter, the
Union  Home  Minister  held  meetings with the  leaders  of   Political
Parties on 13th July, 1994 to discuss the provisions of the Bill.  The
general  consensus  among  the  leaders was that the  Bill   should  be
assented  to.  Accordingly, the President gave his assent to the  Bill
on 19th July, 1994.

7.   The  Tamil  Nadu Government accordingly notified the  Tamil  Nadu
Backward Classes, Schedule Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Reservation of
Seats  in Educational Institutions and of appointment or posts in  the
Services  under  the State) Act, 1993 as Act No.  45 of 1994  on   19th
July, 1994.

8. The Tamil Nadu Government requested the Government of India on
22nd July, 1994 that the aforementioned Tamil Nadu Act 45 of 1994 be
included in the Ninth Schedule to the Constitution of India for the
reasons given below:-

"The  said  Act attracts article 31C of the Constitution,  as  falling
within  the purview of clauses (b) and (c) of article 39 and  articles
38  and 46 of the Constitution-vide section 2 of the Act.  The Act has
been  passed  relying  on  the directive principles  of   State  Policy
enshrined  in Part IV of the Constitution and in particular,  articles
38,  39 (b) and (c) and 46 of the Constitution.  As the Act is to give
effect  to  the directive principles of State Policy contained,  inter
alia,  in article 39(b) and (c), the said Act will get the  protection
of article 31C of the Constitution and therefore, cannot be challenged
under  articles 14 and 19 of the Constitution, with reference to which
article  14,  the reservation exceeding 50 per cent.  has been  struck
down  by  the Supreme Court.  Now it has been decided to  address   the
Government of India for including the Act in the Ninth Schedule to the
Constitution, so that the law cannot be challenged as violative of any
of  the  fundamental rights contained in Part III of the  Constitution
including articles 15 and 16, and gets protection under article 31B of
the Constitution."

9.  The Government of India has already supported the provision of the
State  legislation by giving the President's assent to the Tamil  Nadu
Bill.   As a corollary to this decision, it is now necessary that  the
Tamil  Nadu Act 45 of 1994 is brought within the purview of the  Ninth
Schedule  to the Constitution so that it gets protection under article
31B of the Constitution in regard to the judicial review.

10.  The Bill seeks to achieve the aforementioned objective.

NEW DELHI;                                       SITARAM KESRI.

The 23rd August, 1994.


THE CONSTITUTION (SEVENTY-SIXTH AMENDMENT) ACT, 1994

                                        [31st August, 1994.]

An Act further to amend the Constitution of India.

BE it enacted by Parliament in the Forty-fifth Year of the Republic of
India as follows:-

1.    Short   title.-This   Act   may  be  called  the   Constitution
(Seventy-sixth Amendment) Act, 1994.

2.   Amendment  of the Ninth Schedule.-In the Ninth Schedule  to  the
Constitution,  after  entry  257  and   before  the   Explanation,  the
following entry shall be inserted, namely:-

"257A.   The  Tamil  Nadu   Backward   Classes,  Scheduled  Castes  and
Scheduled  Tribes (Reservation of Seats in Educational Institution and
of  Appointments  or Posts in the Services under the State) Act,  1993
(Tamil Nadu Act 45 of 1994).".

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